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The data problem Second only to availability of drinking water, access to food supply is the greatest priority. Hence, agriculture is a dominant component of the global economy.
While mechanization of Water pollution in the united states essay in many countries has resulted in a dramatic fall in the proportion of population working in agriculture, the pressure to produce enough food has had a worldwide impact on agricultural practices.
In many countries, this pressure has resulted in expansion into marginal lands and is usually associated with subsistence farming. In other countries, food requirements have required expansion of irrigation and steadily increasing use of fertilizers and pesticides to achieve and sustain higher yields.
Sustainable agriculture is one of the greatest challenges. Sustainability implies that agriculture not only secure a sustained food supply, but that its environmental, socio-economic and human health impacts are recognized and accounted for within national development plans.
FAO's definition of Sustainable agricultural development appears in Box 1. Such Sustainable development in the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors conserves land, water, plant and animal genetic resources, is environmentally non-degrading, technically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable.
However, agriculture is both cause and victim of water pollution. It is a victim through use of wastewater and polluted surface and groundwater which contaminate crops and transmit disease to consumers and farm workers. Agriculture exists within a symbiosis of land and water and, as FAO a makes quite clear, " This publication deals specifically with the role of agriculture in the field of freshwater quality.
Categories of non-point source impacts - specifically sediment, pesticides, nutrients, and pathogens - are identified together with their ecological, public health and, as appropriate, legal consequences.
Recommendations are made on evaluation techniques and control measures. Much of the scientific literature on agricultural impacts on surface and groundwater quality is from developed countries, reflecting broad scientific concern and, in some cases, regulatory attention since the s.
The scientific findings and management principles are, however, generally applicable worldwide. This publication does not deal with water quality impacts caused by food processing industries insofar as these are considered to be point sources and are usually subject to control through effluent regulation and enforcement.
Water quality as a global issue Agriculture, as the single largest user of freshwater on a global basis and as a major cause of degradation of surface and groundwater resources through erosion and chemical runoff, has cause to be concerned about the global implications of water quality.
The associated agrofood-processing industry is also a significant source of organic pollution in most countries. Aquaculture is now recognised as a major problem in freshwater, estuarine and coastal environments, leading to eutrophication and ecosystem damage.
The principal environmental and public health dimensions of the global freshwater quality problem are highlighted below: Experts predict that, because pollution can no longer be remedied by dilution i. This "crisis" is predicted to have the following global dimensions: The real and potential loss of development opportunity because of diversion of funds for remediation of water pollution has been noted by many countries.
At the Expert Meeting on Water Quantity and Quality Management convened by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific ESCAPAsian representatives approved a declaration which called for national and international action to assess loss of economic opportunity due to water pollution and to determine the potential economic impacts of the "looming water crisis".
Interestingly, the concern of the delegates to the ESCAP meeting was to demonstrate the economic rather than simply the environmental impacts of water pollution on sustainable development.
Creditworthiness Matthews, is of concern insofar as lending institutions now look at the cost of remediation relative to the economic gains. There is concern that if the cost of remediation exceeds economic benefits, development projects may no longer be creditworthy.
Sustainable agriculture will, inevitably, be required to factor into its water resource planning the larger issues of sustainable economic development across economic sectors. This comprehensive approach to management of water resources has been highlighted in the World Bank's policy on water resource development.
Older chlorinated agricultural pesticides have been implicated in a variety of human health issues and as causing significant and widespread ecosystem dysfunction through their toxic effects on organisms.
Generally banned in the developed countries, there is now a concerted international effort to ban these worldwide as part of a protocol for Persistent Organic Pollutants POPs.
Classes of non-point source pollution highlighted categories refer to agricultural activities Source: International Joint Commission,and other sources Agriculture Animal feedlots Irrigation Cultivation Pastures Dairy farming Orchards Aquaculture Runoff from all categories of agriculture leading to surface and groundwater pollution.
In northern climates, runoff from frozen ground is a major problem, especially where manure is spread during the winter. Vegetable handling, especially washing in polluted surface waters in many developing countries, leads to contamination of food supplies.
Growth of aquaculture is becoming a major polluting activity in many countries. Irrigation return flows carry salts, nutrients and pesticides. Tile drainage rapidly carries leachates such as nitrogen to surface waters.
Phosphorus, nitrogen, metals, pathogens, sediment, pesticides, salt, BOD1, trace elements e. Forestry Increased runoff from disturbed land. Most damaging is forest clearing for urbanization.Air pollution is a severe problem, especially for the United States.
Air pollution is the contamination and harm to the atmosphere by substances like smoke and fuel exhaust. According to the World Health Organization, one-fifth of the population is exposed to hazardous levels of pollutants.
Essay about Bioaccumulation: Water Pollution and. Through this program, air quality samples are collected to judge attainment of ambient air quality standards, to prevent or alleviate air pollution emergencies, to observe pollution trends throughout regions, and to evaluate the effects of urban, land-use, and transportation planning relating to air pollution.
Water Resources of the United States. Water is one of seven science mission areas of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Water's mission is to collect and disseminate reliable, impartial, and timely information that is needed to understand the Nation's water resources.
Essay - Hydrogeology Journal. Fact Sheet Fact Sheet Aug 14, · Watch video · As many as 63 million people — nearly a fifth of the United States — from rural central California to the boroughs of New York City, were exposed to potentially unsafe water more than once.
The following essay will be looking at the factors that cause pollution, and the effect that pollution has on the environment of Canada. Beaches are a valuable resource but they are at risk in the United States.
[tags: water pollution and global warming] Powerful Essays words | ( pages) | Preview. Air pollution is a severe problem, especially for the United States. Air pollution is the contamination and harm to the atmosphere by substances like smoke and fuel exhaust. According to the World Health Organization, one-fifth of the population is exposed to hazardous levels of pollutants.
Essay about Bioaccumulation: Water Pollution and.