Addressing poverty alleviation via the expanded use of biological nitrogen fixation in agriculture was the theme of the 15th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation.
Because nitrogen-fixation research is multidisciplinary, exploiting its benefits for agriculture and environmental protection has continued to attract research by diverse groups of scientists, including chemists, biochemists, Oppo find clover bao nhieu tien physiologists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, agricultural scientists, extension agents, and inoculant producers.
This joint Congress was hosted in South Africa at the Cape Town International Convention Centre, 21—26 Januaryand was attended by about registered participants from 41 countries world-wide. During the Congress, some oral and approximately 80 poster papers were presented.
Applications to Poverty Alleviation. This Congress dealt with the last of these three major inputs. An enormous reservoir of nitrogen resides in the atmosphere as nitrogen N2 gas, however, this atmospheric nitrogen is not directly usable. It only becomes available to the biosphere through biological nitrogen fixation BNFa process that only the simplest microorganisms have developed.
Through associations with these nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, plants can, in turn, derive a significant proportion of their fixed-nitrogen requirement for growth from BNF. The most agriculturally important associations are those of legume crops for example, soybeans, peas, and feed legumes, like alfalfa and clover with Rhizobium bacteria, where a tight symbiotic relationship occurs within a specially developed organ, the nodule, usually on the roots of the plants.
An ecologically significant association involves Frankia microbes with trees and shrubs, which help reclaim devastated soils, and through inter-cropping can enhance the growth of valuable lumber-producing trees.
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Other associations include cyanobacteria with plants and trees as well as the more informal associative and endophytic associations of microorganisms with grasses, most particularly with sugarcane, where possibly all of its fixed-nitrogen requirement can be supplied by BNF.
These examples clearly illustrate why BNF is a key metabolic process for food production and the maintenance of life on Earth. The Congress theme, the application of BNF to sustainable agriculture, poverty alleviation, and environmental concerns, was well covered and included the introduction of nitrogen-fixing legumes into local small holdings, appropriate use of both soil and water, the use of indigenous soil microbes to provide N and P, and good agricultural practices generally.
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In addition, the basic sciences that underpin these more applied aspects were also well represented through presentations and progress reports, among others, on the fundamentals of nitrogen fixation including a nitrogenase — the enzyme responsible for the chemical conversion of N2 gas to ammonia — that can fix N2 at 92 C!
Sustainable agriculture not only depends on appropriate agricultural practices but, to maintain high yields, it requires the use of plant cultivars that respond to environmental constraints.
In addition to classical plant-breeding technology, the modern-day engineering of high-performance crops and symbiotic associations can now access and use the incredible insight acquired through plant and bacterial genomics.
Both topics were well represented in the Congress. Indeed, refined gene-sequence maps of the model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula, have led to exciting genomic work in other legumes.
On the microbial side, research on Sinorhizobium meliloti and Mesorhizobium loti as well as the broad host range Rhizobium NGR has reached the post-genomics era. The recent and rapid progress made in sequencing the genomes of Azotobacter vinelandii, Azospirillum brasilense, Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Azorhizobium caulinodans, Gluconactetobacter diazotrophicus and Frankia was also reported.
Moreover, there were reports of photosynthetic bradyrhizobia that lack the nodAC genes, which are necessary for Nod-factor biosynthesis and, therefore, for initiation of symbiosis. This discovery opens new opportunities for research in the area of plantmicrobe signaling during the early stages of symbiotic establishment.
All this plus a cyanobacterium that anticipates sunrise each morning! Taken together, the excellent technical presentations and the lively discussions that ensued, both during and after the oral and poster sessions, are clear indicators of the success of the Congress. We hope that this volume will serve as a living reminder of those sweet moments in Cape Town.
On a sad note, during the preparation of these Proceedings, we learned of the untimely death of Edgar DaSilva, who was an avid supporter of biological nitrogen-fixation research. We feel it only appropriate to dedicate these Proceedings to his memory.Oppo Find Clover Available Online in Thailand with a Price Baht Find this Pin and more on Unlock4modem by Kamlesh Kumar.
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