His father founded a marine insurance firm and at one time served as Hawaiian consul-general in London. He was also for a time churchwarden at St John-at-Hampstead. His grandfather was the physician John Simm Smith, a university colleague of John Keatsand close friend of the eccentric philanthropist Ann Thwaytes.
Gerard Manley Hopkins — English poet. Considered a major English poet, Hopkins's poems are distinguished by stylistic innovations, most notably his striking diction and his pioneering use of a meter he termed "sprung rhythm.
However, critics today agree that Hopkins is the author of some of the finest and most complex poems in the English language, and he is firmly established as a major figure in the development of modern poetry.
Gerard Manley Hopkins >Although the English author and Jesuit Gerard Manley Hopkins () >wrote no more than 40 mature poems, he is regarded as one of the major >English poets. Essays and criticism on Gerard Manley Hopkins - Critical Essays. Gerard Manley Hopkins. Gerard Manley Hopkins () was an English Jesuit priest and poet who created an entirely new poetic style but whose poetry remained largely unpublished and unknown in his short lifetime – he was only 44 when he died.
Beginning inhe attended to Cholmeley Grammar School in High-gate, where he excelled in his courses and won a school poetry competition. Inhe obtained a scholarship to the prestigious Baillol College at Oxford University. His experiences at Oxford were to have a profound effect on his life: Inafter months of soul-searching and against his family's wishes, he converted to Catholicism.
The following year he graduated from Oxford.
In the spring ofhe decided to enter the Jesuit order. He burned his poems, vowing to give up writing and dedicate himself fully to his religious calling. After his ordination inHopkins served as a priest at parishes in London, Oxford, Liverpool, and Glasgow, and taught classics at the Jesuit Stonyhurst College.
In he was appointed a fellow in classics at the Royal University of Ireland and professor of Greek at the University College in Dublin, positions he retained until his sudden death from typhoid fever in Hopkins was a dedicated priest and teacher, but was not, as most of his biographers agree, temperamentally suited to his work assignments, and, as time passed, he became progressively more isolated and depressed, plagued—particularly during his last years in Ireland—by spiritual doubts and ill-health.
Major Works Inwhen the German ship the Deutschland was lost at sea, carrying five Franciscan nuns exiled from Germany with it, one of Hopkins's superiors suggested that someone ought to write a poem about the incident.
Hopkins took the hint and produced his first major work, The Wreck of the Deutschland. In the poem, Hopkins introduced the revolutionary sprung rhythm that he is credited with originating. Unlike conventional poetic meter in which the rhythm is based on the regular alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables, the meter of sprung rhythm is determined by the number of stressed syllables alone.
In addition to experimenting with meter in The Wreck of the Deutschland, Hopkins also employed several other poetic techniques for which he has become known. His diction is characterized by unusual compound words, coined phrases, and terms borrowed from dialect, further complicated by intentional ambiguities and multiple meanings.
Moreover, he frequently utilizes elliptical phrasing often omitting, for example, relative pronounscompression, internal rhyme, half-rhyme, assonance, alliteration, and metaphor. The Wreck of the Deutschland also introduced what were to become the central philosophical concerns of Hopkins's mature poetry.
The poem reflects both his belief in the doctrine that human beings were created to praise God and his commitment to the Jesuit practices of meditation and spiritual self-examination. The teachings of the thirteenth-century Franciscan philosopher John Duns Scotus also deeply influenced Hopkins's thinking.
From Duns Scotus's teaching of "haecceitas" or the "thisness" of all things, Hopkins developed the concepts of "inscape," a term he coined to describe the inward, distinctive, essential quality of a thing, and "instress," which refers to the force that gives a natural object its inscape and allows that inscape to be seen and expressed by the observer.
After completing The Wreck of the Deutschland, Hopkins continued to experiment with style, language, and meter. He is perhaps most widely known for his shorter poems on nature, many of which were written during the early years of his priesthood. In such celebrations of natural beauty as "Spring," "Inversnaid," " Pied Beauty ," " God's Grandeur ," "The Starlight Night," and his most famous sonnet, " The Windhover ," Hopkins strove to capture the inscape of creation as a means of knowing and praising God.
His final poems, known as the "terrible sonnets," express his spiritual struggle. Although Hopkins feared that his poetic power was declining in his last years, the unguarded self-revelation and mastery of the sonnet form that critics perceive in these sonnets has led them to regard these poems highly.
Critical Reception None of Hopkins' major works were published in his lifetime. His reservations about Hopkins's style, which he clearly voiced in his introduction to the volume, referring to "oddities," "obscurities," and "faults of taste" in the poems, set the tone for the early critical response to Hopkins.
Critics tended to echo or to amplify Bridges's reservations. The idea that Hopkins's poetry was odd, obscure, and eccentric, in combination with both explicit and implicit rejoinders to that idea, was to constitute a running dialogue in Hopkins' criticism for at least two decades.Gerard Manley Hopkins >Although the English author and Jesuit Gerard Manley Hopkins () >wrote no more than 40 mature poems, he is regarded as one of the major >English poets.
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Leaving Cert and Junior Cert exam paper questions and marking schemes listed by topic. Studyclix makes exam revision and study easier. Essays and criticism on Gerard Manley Hopkins - Critical Essays. Aoife O’Driscoll CBC schwenkreis.com 1 Spring by Gerard Manley Hopkins Nothing is so beautiful as Spring – When weeds, in wheels, shoot long and lovely and lush;.
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