Gignoux Find articles by Christopher R. Roth Find articles by Lindsey A. Oleksyk Find articles by Taras K. Copyright Via et al.
When an electron beam impinges on a solid surface, it loses energy primarily by electron-electron interactions. In those interactions, the energy gained by electrons in the solid is often sufficient to ionize them; the electrons thus ionized are called secondary electrons SE.
The interactions of a primary electron with the solid are classed as elastic energy-conserving and inelastic energy non-conserving. In the latter case, energy fails to be conserved in the sense that, while total energy is conserved, energy is transferred from one subsystem typically the primary electron to another the solid.
It is important to recognize that the simpler processes one imagines are typically elastic. For example, if one regards the solid simply as a rigid electrostatic potential, then almost no energy is lost by the primary electron: It is thus clear that inelastic processes--and energy loss by the primary electron--require recoil--some movement of the electrostatic potential generated by the solid.
There is a more roundabout intuitive way to see this, which demonstrates in a small way the unity of physical law. If energy is lost by the primary electron, then the energy lost must be taken up by the solid. Since the potential energy of the solid is determined by the positions of its constituents, it is clear that neither the potential nor the kinetic energy can change unless some part of the solid moves.
A junction in a bipolar junction transistor BJT between emitter E and base regions. By some measures, the best version of this is the famous eleventh edition first half published December ; second half six months later.
It is available free online in increasingly readable form it is slowly being converted from badly OCR 'ed versions. The modern online version is available mostly by subscription.
The beginnings of articles are available as a tease. I can't quite put my finger on the reason, but the online edition of the modern EB feels anti-intuitive and hard to use. The information is scattered in packets that don't connect very well or form a coherent narrative.
Kinda like this glossary. The eleventh edition, on the other hand, is an object of veneration. They did get a lot of very good contributors, famous experts in their fields: This optimistic spirit was reflected later in the year [, marking the th anniversary of the first edition] by the publication of a full-length history called The Great EB, which presented an exhaustive account of the Encyclopaedia's growth and financial history.
The author of this skillful exercise in public relations was Herman Kogan, a former Chicago newspaperman who was subsequently appointed Director of Company Relations for the Britannica.
The early parts of his book were animated by a critical spirit, but the closing portion merely offered a glowing description of the Company's editorial and sales policies.
Despite this defect, The Great EB is a useful historical work because it was compiled from the Company's private archives. It supplied a great deal of material for this [third] chapter--and its quasi-official character was emphasized by its publication by the University of Chicago Press.
Incidentally, I've decided to dedicate this entry to the memory of my cousin Rita Schaeffer, because she used to sell the Britannica.SYDNEY (AP) — Byeong Hun An overcame four-seasons-in-one-day type weather to take a one-stroke lead after the first round of the Australian schwenkreis.com South.
After visiting Puerto Rico I witnessed three main points of the colonization including language, music, and foods. The country of Spain had the first and longest affect on the island of Puerto Rico. The most obvious and oldest form of colonization would be the Puerto Rican language, which is Spanish.
History of Puerto Rico. Jump to navigation Jump to search. This article's factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.
Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced. (November ). Defending the New Nation: Who was the last active Continental Navy officer and the first U.S.
Navy commissioned officer? John Barry Why were the border lakes between the U.S. and Canada of strategic importance during the War of ? Reading 1: The Discovery and Colonization of Puerto Rico. but at the time they called it Puerto Rico—"fine or rich port." As the years passed, however, the name of the island and the harbor shifted: Puerto Rico came to refer to the entire island, and San Juan identified the port and the city that grew up around it.
Puerto Rico became. 1) A Marshall Plan for Puerto Rico, helping the island not only recover from Hurricane Maria, but thrive with modern infrastructure and renewable energy systems.
2) A community-led, sustainable, and just recovery - including protections for Puerto Rico’s public education system from kindergarten to college and trade school.